AQL queries without collections

AQL queries typically access one or more collections to read from documents or to modify them. Queries don’t necessarily have to involve collections however. Below are a few examples of that.

Following is a query that returns a string value. The result string is contained in an array because the result of every valid query is an array:

RETURN "this will be returned"
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You may use variables, call functions and return arbitrarily structured results:

LET array = [1, 2, 3, 4]
RETURN { array, sum: SUM(array) }
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Language constructs such as the FOR loop can be used too. Below query creates the Cartesian product of two arrays and concatenates the value pairs:

FOR year IN [ 2011, 2012, 2013 ]
  FOR quarter IN [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]
    RETURN {
      formatted: CONCAT(quarter, " / ", year)
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