ArangoDB v3.10 reached End of Life (EOL) and is no longer supported.

This documentation is outdated. Please see the most recent stable version.

Changes in version 7

Various detailed have changed, like the setup, transport, configuration, serialization, and some of the APIs

Maven Setup


Gradle Setup

repositories {

dependencies {
    implementation 'com.arangodb:arangodb-java-driver:7.x.x'

HTTP client

The HTTP client has been changed to Vert.x WebClient .

HTTP/2 is now supported. HTTP/2 supports multiplexing and uses 1 connection per host by default.

Cookies are not supported anymore: cookies received in the response are ignored.

Configuration changes

The default communication protocol is now HTTP2_JSON (HTTP/2 with JSON content type).

The default host configuration to has been removed.

Configuration properties are not read automatically from properties files anymore. A new API for loading properties has been introduced: ArangoDB.Builder.loadProperties(ArangoConfigProperties). Implementations can supply configuration properties coming from different sources, like system properties, remote stores, frameworks integrations, etc. An implementation for loading properties from local files is provided by ArangoConfigProperties.fromFile() and its overloaded variants.

Example of how to read config properties prefixed with arangodb from file (as in version 6):

// ## src/main/resources/
// arangodb.hosts=
// arangodb.password=test
// ...

ArangoConfigProperties props = ArangoConfigProperties.fromFile();

To read config properties from file, where the config properties are prefixed with adb:

// ## src/main/resources/
// adb.hosts=
// adb.password=test
// ...

ArangoConfigProperties props = ArangoConfigProperties.fromFile("", "adb");

See the related reference documentation about Config File Properties for details.

Examples showing how to provide configuration properties from different sources:


Support for different serdes and communication protocols is offered by separate modules. Defaults modules are transitively included, but they could be excluded if not needed.

The main driver artifact com.arangodb:arangodb-java-driver has transitive dependencies on default modules:

  • com.arangodb:http-protocol: HTTP communication protocol (HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/2)
  • com.arangodb:jackson-serde-json: JSON user-data serde module based on Jackson Databind

Alternative modules are respectively:

  • com.arangodb:vst-protocol: VST communication protocol
  • com.arangodb:jackson-serde-vpack: VPACK user-data serde module based on Jackson Databind

The modules above are discovered and loaded using SPI (Service Provider Interface).

In case a non-default communication protocol or user serde are used, the related module(s) must be explicitly included and the corresponding default module(s) can be excluded.

For example, to use the driver with VPACK over VST, we must include:

  • com.arangodb:vst-protocol and
  • com.arangodb:jackson-serde-vpack

and can exclude:

  • com.arangodb:http-protocol and
  • com.arangodb:jackson-serde-json

For example in Maven:


Transitive dependencies

com.arangodb:arangodb-java-driver has transitive dependencies on jackson-core, jackson-databind, and jackson-annotations, using by default version 2.14.

The versions of such libraries can be overridden. The driver is compatible with Jackson 2 (at least 2.10 or greater).

To do this, you might need to include jackson-bom  to ensure dependency convergence across the entire project, for example in case there are in your project other libraries depending on different versions of Jackson:


The module http-protocol has transitive dependency on io.vertx:vertx-web-client, which in turn depends on packages from io.netty.

If these dependency requirements cannot be satisfied, i.e. they cause convergence conflicts with other versions of same packages in the classpath, you might need to use the shaded version of this driver, which bundles all modules together with relocated external dependencies.

The dependency on com.arangodb:velocypack has been removed from core module and is now only used as internal dependency by com.arangodb:vst-protocol and com.arangodb:jackson-serde-vpack, thus transitively imported only when using VST protocol or VPACK content type.

User Data

Before version 7.0, the driver always parsed raw strings as JSON, but unfortunately this did not allow to distinguish it from the case when the intent is to use the raw string as such, without parsing it. From version 7.0 onward, strings are not interpreted as JSON anymore. To represent user-data as raw JSON, the wrapper class com.arangodb.util.RawJson has been added:

RawJson rawJsonIn = RawJson.of("""
ArangoCursor<RawJson> res = adb.db().query("RETURN @v", Map.of("v", rawJsonIn), RawJson.class);
RawJson rawJsonOut =;
String json = rawJsonOut.get();  // {"foo":"bar"}

To represent user-data already encoded as byte array, the wrapper class RawBytes has been added. The byte array can either represent a JSON string (UTF-8 encoded) or a VPACK value. The format used should match the driver protocol configuration (JSON for HTTP_JSON and HTTP2_JSON, otherwise VPACK).

The following changes have been applied to com.arangodb.entity.BaseDocument and com.arangodb.entity.BaseEdgeDocument:

  • not serializable anymore (using Java serialization)
  • new method removeAttribute(String)
  • getProperties() returns an unmodifiable map

Before version 7.0, when performing write operations, the metadata of the input data objects was updated in place with the metadata received in the response. From version 7.0 onward, the input data objects passed as arguments to API methods are treated as immutable and the related metadata fields are not updated anymore. The updated metadata can be found in the returned object.

Serialization / Deserialization

Up to version 6, the (de)serialization was always performed to/from VPACK. In case the JSON format was required, the raw VPACK was then converted to JSON. From version 7 onward, the serialization module is a dataformat-agnostic API. Implementations can serialize and deserialize directly to the target dataformat, without intermediate conversion to VPACK. The default implementation uses the JSON format.

Support for data type VPackSlice has been removed in favor of Jackson type com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.JsonNode and its subclasses (ArrayNode, ObjectNode, …), for example:

JsonNode jsonNodeIn = JsonNodeFactory.instance
        .put("foo", "bar");

ArangoCursor<JsonNode> res = adb.db().query("RETURN @v", Map.of("v", jsonNodeIn), JsonNode.class);
JsonNode jsonNodeOut =;
String foo = jsonNodeOut.get("foo").textValue();    // bar

The dependency on com.arangodb:velocypack has been removed. Since version 3.0, com.arangodb:velocypack does not include databind functionalities anymore. It only offers a lower level API to deal with primitive VPACK types. VPACK databind functionalities are now offered by jackson-dataformat-velocypack , which is a Jackson backend for VPACK dataformat.

The user-data custom serializer implementation ArangoJack has been removed in favor of com.arangodb.serde.jackson.JacksonSerde. This allows using Jackson API to serialize and deserialize user-data, compatible with both JSON and VPACK.

See the detailed documentation about Serialization for more information.

ArangoDB Java Driver Shaded

From version 7 onward, a shaded variant of the driver is also published with Maven coordinates: com.arangodb:arangodb-java-driver-shaded.

It bundles and relocates the following packages:

  • com.fasterxml.jackson
  • com.arangodb.jackson.dataformat.velocypack
  • io.vertx
  • io.netty

Note that the internal serde internally uses Jackson classes from com.fasterxml.jackson that are relocated to com.arangodb.shaded.fasterxml.jackson. Therefore, the internal serde of the shaded driver is not compatible with Jackson annotations and modules from packagecom.fasterxml.jackson, but only with their relocated variants. In case the internal serde is used as user-data serde, the annotations from package com.arangodb.serde can be used to annotate fields, parameters, getters and setters for mapping values representing ArangoDB documents metadata (_id, _key, _rev, _from, _to):

  • @InternalId
  • @InternalKey
  • @InternalRev
  • @InternalFrom
  • @InternalTo

These annotations are compatible with relocated Jackson classes. Note that the internal serde is not part of the public API and could change in future releases without notice, thus breaking client applications relying on it to serialize or deserialize user-data. It is therefore recommended also in this case either:

  • using the default user-data serde JacksonSerde (from packages com.arangodb:jackson-serde-json or com.arangodb:jackson-serde-vpack), or
  • providing a custom user-data serde implementation via ArangoDB.Builder.serde(ArangoSerde).

Removed APIs

The following client APIs have been removed:

  • client APIs already deprecated in Java Driver version 6
  • client API to interact with deprecated server APIs:
    • MMFiles related APIs
    • ArangoDatabase.executeTraversal()
    • ArangoDB.getLogs()
    • minReplicationFactor in collections and graphs
    • overwrite flag in DocumentCreateOptions
    • hash and skipList indexes

The user-data custom serializer implementation ArangoJack has been removed in favor of com.arangodb.serde.jackson.JacksonSerde.

Support for interpreting raw strings as JSON has been removed (in favor of com.arangodb.util.RawJson).

Support of data type com.arangodb.velocypack.VPackSlice has been removed in favor of Jackson type com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.JsonNode and its subclasses (ArrayNode, ObjectNode, …). Raw VPACK data can now be used with com.arangodb.util.RawBytes.

Support for custom initialization of cursors (ArangoDB._setCursorInitializer(ArangoCursorInitializer cursorInitializer)) has been removed.

Async API

From version 7.2 onward, the driver provides a new asynchronous API. Unlike in version 6, the asynchronous API is based on the same underlying driver instance and therefore supports all the communication protocols and configurations of the synchronous API. The asynchronous API is accessible via ArangoDB#async(), for example:

ArangoDB adb = new ArangoDB.Builder()
    // ...
ArangoDBAsync adbAsync = adb.async();
CompletableFuture<ArangoDBVersion> version = adbAsync.getVersion();
// ...

Under the hood, both synchronous and asynchronous API use the same internal communication layer, which has been reworked and re-implemented in an asynchronous way. The synchronous API blocks and waits for the result, while the asynchronous one returns a CompletableFuture<> representing the pending operation being performed. Each asynchronous API method is equivalent to the corresponding synchronous variant, except for the Cursor API.

Async Cursor API

The Cursor API (ArangoCursor and ArangoCursorAsync) is intrinsically different, because the synchronous Cursor API is based on Java’s java.util.Iterator, which is an interface only suitable for synchronous scenarios. On the other side, the asynchronous Cursor API provides a method com.arangodb.ArangoCursorAsync#nextBatch(), which returns a CompletableFuture<ArangoCursorAsync<T>> and can be used to consume the next batch of the cursor, for example:

CompletableFuture<ArangoCursorAsync<Integer>> future1 = adbAsync.db()
        .query("FOR i IN i..10000", Integer.class);
CompletableFuture<ArangoCursorAsync<Integer>> future2 = future1
        .thenCompose(c -> {
            List<Integer> batch = c.getResult();
            // ...
            // consume batch
            // ...
            return c.nextBatch();
// ...

API methods changes

Before version 7.0, some CRUD API methods inferred the return type from the type of the data object passed as input. Now, the return type can be explicitly set for each CRUD API method. This type is used as deserialization target by the user-data serde. In particular, no automatic type inference is performed anymore in:

  • ArangoCollection.insertDocuments()
  • ArangoCollection.replaceDocuments()
  • ArangoCollection.updateDocuments()
  • ArangoCollection.deleteDocuments()

Unless specified explicitly, the target deserialization type is Void.class, thus allowing only null values.

CRUD operations operating with multiple documents have now an overloaded variant which accepts raw data (RawBytes and RawJson) containing multiple documents.

CRUD operations operating with multiple documents with parametric types are now covariant:

  • ArangoCollection.insertDocuments(Collection<? extends T>, DocumentCreateOptions, Class<T>)
  • ArangoCollection.replaceDocuments(Collection<? extends T>, DocumentReplaceOptions, Class<T>)

com.arangodb.Request and com.arangodb.Response classes have been refactored to support generic body type. ArangoDB.execute(Request<T>, Class<U>): Response<U> accepts now the target deserialization type for the response body.

com.arangodb.ArangoDBException has been enhanced with the id of the request causing it. This can be useful to correlate it with the debug level logs.

Graph API has been updated (#486):

  • added com.arangodb.ArangoEdgeCollection.drop() and overloads
  • added com.arangodb.ArangoVertexCollection.drop(VertexCollectionDropOptions)
  • updated com.arangodb.ArangoGraph.replaceEdgeDefinition()

ArangoDatabase.getDocument() has been removed, in favor of ArangoCollection.getDocument().

ArangoDatabase.query() overloaded variants have now a different order of parameters:

  • query(String query, Class<T> type)
  • query(String query, Class<T> type, AqlQueryOptions options)
  • query(String query, Class<T> type, Map<String,Object> bindVars)
  • query(String query, Class<T> type, Map<String,Object> bindVars, AqlQueryOptions options)

The class com.arangodb.DbName has been removed. The database names can now be passed as String. Support to UTF-8 characters in data definition names (databases, collections, Views, indexes) has been added, see Support for extended naming constraints.

The name of ArangoCollection and ArangoView API classes are now final. The related rename methods:

  • com.arangodb.ArangoCollection.rename(String)
  • com.arangodb.ArangoView.rename(String)

Do not change anymore the collection or view name of the instance of the related API class on which it is invoked. To interact with the renamed collection, a new instance of ArangoCollection with the new name must be created.

API entities

All entities and options classes (in packages com.arangodb.model and com.arangodb.entity) are now final.

The replication factor is now modeled with a new interface (com.arangodb.entity.ReplicationFactor) with implementations: NumericReplicationFactor and SatelliteReplicationFactor.

Cursor statistics are now in com.arangodb.entity.CursorStats.

GraalVM Native Image

The driver supports GraalVM Native Image compilation. To compile with --link-at-build-time when http-protocol module is present in the classpath, additional substitutions are be required for its transitive dependencies (Netty and Vert.x). See this example  for reference. Such substitutions are not required when compiling the shaded driver.

Framework compatibility

The driver can be used in the following frameworks that support GraalVM Native Image generation:


To migrate your existing project to Java Driver version 7.0, it is recommended first updating to the latest version of branch 6 and make sure that your code does not use any deprecated API. This can be done by checking the presence of deprecation warnings in the Java compiler output.

The deprecation notes in the related JavaDoc contain information about the reason of the deprecation and suggest migration alternatives to use.