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Optimizing View and inverted index query performance

You can improve the performance of View and inverted index queries with a primary sort order, stored values and other optimizations

Primary Sort Order

Inverted indexes and arangosearch Views can have a primary sort order. A direction can be specified upon their creation for each uniquely named attribute (ascending or descending), to enable an optimization for AQL queries which iterate over a collection or View and sort by one or multiple of the indexed attributes. If the field(s) and the sorting direction(s) match, then the data can be read directly from the index without actual sort operation.

You can define a primary sort order when creating inverted indexes and utilize it using inverted indexes standalone or via search-alias Views.

Definition of an inverted index with a primarySort property:

db.coll.ensureIndex({
  name: "inv-idx",
  type: "inverted",
  fields: ["text", "date"],
  primarySort: {
    fields: [
      { field: "date", direction: "desc" }
    ]
  }
});

AQL query example:

FOR doc IN coll OPTIONS { indexHint: "inv-idx", forceIndexHint: true }
  SORT doc.date DESC
  RETURN doc

Execution plan without a sorted index being used:

Execution plan:
 Id   NodeType                  Est.   Comment
  1   SingletonNode                1   * ROOT
  2   EnumerateCollectionNode      0     - FOR doc IN coll   /* full collection scan  */
  3   CalculationNode              0       - LET #1 = doc.`date`   /* attribute expression */   /* collections used: doc : coll */
  4   SortNode                     0       - SORT #1 DESC   /* sorting strategy: standard */
  5   ReturnNode                   0       - RETURN doc

Execution plan with the primary sort order of the index being utilized:

Execution plan:
 Id   NodeType        Est.   Comment
  1   SingletonNode      1   * ROOT
  6   IndexNode          0     - FOR doc IN coll   /* reverse inverted index scan, index scan + document lookup */
  5   ReturnNode         0       - RETURN doc

You can add the inverted index to a search-alias View. Queries against the View can benefit from the primary sort order, too:

db._createView("viewName", "search-alias", { indexes: [
  { collection: "coll", index: "inv-idx" }
] });

db._query(`FOR doc IN viewName
  SORT doc.date DESC
  RETURN doc`);

To define more than one attribute to sort by, use multiple sub-objects in the primarySort array:

db.coll.ensureIndex({
  name: "inv-idx",
  type: "inverted",
  fields: ["text", "date"],
  primarySort: {
    fields: [
      { field: "date", direction: "desc" },
      { field: "text", direction: "asc" }
    ]
  }
});
If you mix directions in the primary sort order, the inverted index cannot be utilized for fully optimizing out a matching SORT operation if you use the inverted index standalone.
{
  "links": {
    "coll1": {
      "fields": {
        "text": {}
      }
    },
    "coll2": {
      "fields": {
        "text": {}
      }
    },
    "primarySort": [
      {
        "field": "date",
        "direction": "desc"
      }
    ]
  }
}

You can only set the primarySort option and the related primarySortCompression and primarySortCache options on View creation.

AQL query example:

FOR doc IN viewName
  SORT doc.date DESC
  RETURN doc

Execution plan without a sorted index being used:

Execution plan:
 Id   NodeType            Est.   Comment
  1   SingletonNode          1   * ROOT
  2   EnumerateViewNode      1     - FOR doc IN viewName   /* view query */
  3   CalculationNode        1       - LET #1 = doc.`date`   /* attribute expression */
  4   SortNode               1       - SORT #1 DESC   /* sorting strategy: standard */
  5   ReturnNode             1       - RETURN doc

Execution plan with the primary sort order of the index being utilized:

Execution plan:
 Id   NodeType            Est.   Comment
  1   SingletonNode          1   * ROOT
  2   EnumerateViewNode      1     - FOR doc IN viewName SORT doc.`date` DESC   /* view query */
  5   ReturnNode             1       - RETURN doc

To define more than one attribute to sort by, use multiple sub-objects in the primarySort array:

{
  "links": {
    "coll1": {
      "fields": {
        "text": {}
      }
    },
    "coll2": {
      "fields": {
        "text": {}
      }
    },
    "primarySort": [
      {
        "field": "date",
        "direction": "desc"
      },
      {
        "field": "text",
        "direction": "asc"
      }
    ]
  }
}

The optimization can be applied to queries which sort by both fields as defined (SORT doc.date DESC, doc.name), but also if they sort in descending order by the date attribute only (SORT doc.date DESC). Queries which sort by text alone (SORT doc.name) are not eligible, because the index is sorted by date first. This is similar to persistent indexes, but inverted sorting directions are not covered by the View index (e.g. SORT doc.date, doc.name DESC).

You can disable the primary sort compression on View or index creation to trade space for speed. The primary sort data is LZ4-compressed by default ("lz4").

  • arangosearch Views: primarySortCompression: "none"
  • Inverted indexes: primarySort: { compression: "none" }

You can additionally enable the primary sort cache to always cache the primary sort columns in memory, which can improve the query performance.

For inverted indexes, set the cache option of the primarySort property to true.

db.coll.ensureIndex({
  name: "inv-idx",
  type: "inverted",
  fields: ["text", "date"],
  primarySort: {
    fields: [
      { field: "date", direction: "desc" },
      { field: "text", direction: "asc" }
    ],
    cache: true
  }
});

db._createView("myView", "search-alias", { indexes: [
  { collection: "coll", index: "inv-idx" }
] });

Set the primarySortCache View property to true.

{
  "links": {
    "coll1": {
      "fields": {
        "text": {},
        "date": {}
      }
    },
    "coll2": {
      "fields": {
        "text": {}
      }
    },
    "primarySort": [
      {
        "field": "date",
        "direction": "desc"
      },
      {
        "field": "text",
        "direction": "asc"
      }
    ],
    "primarySortCache": true
  }
}

Stored Values

It is possible to directly store the values of document attributes in arangosearch View indexes and inverted indexes with the storedValues property (not to be confused with storeValues). You can only set this option on View and index creation.

View indexes and inverted indexes may fully cover search queries by using stored values, improving the query performance. While late document materialization reduces the amount of fetched documents, this optimization can avoid to access the storage engine entirely.

db.articles.ensureIndex({
  name: "inv-idx",
  type: "inverted",
  fields: ["categories[*]"],
  primarySort: {
    fields: [
      { field: "publishedAt", direction: "desc" }
    ]
  },
  storedValues: [
    {
      fields: [ "title", "categories" ]
    }
  ]
});

db._createView("articlesView", "search-alias", { indexes: [
  { collection: "articles", index: "inv-idx" }
] });
{
  "links": {
    "articles": {
      "fields": {
        "categories": {}
      }
    }
  },
  "primarySort": [
    { "field": "publishedAt", "direction": "desc" }
  ],
  "storedValues": [
    { "fields": [ "title", "categories" ] }
  ]
}

In above View definitions, the document attribute categories is indexed for searching, publishedAt is used as primary sort order, and title as well as categories are stored in the index using the new storedValues property.

FOR doc IN articlesView
  SEARCH doc.categories == "recipes"
  SORT doc.publishedAt DESC
  RETURN {
    title: doc.title,
    date: doc.publishedAt,
    tags: doc.categories
  }

The query searches for articles which contain a certain tag in the categories array and returns title, date and tags. All three values are stored in the View (publishedAt via primarySort and the two other via storedValues), thus no documents need to be fetched from the storage engine to answer the query. This is shown in the execution plan as a comment to the EnumerateViewNode: /* view query without materialization */

Execution plan:
 Id   NodeType            Est.   Comment
  1   SingletonNode          1   * ROOT
  2   EnumerateViewNode      1     - FOR doc IN articlesView SEARCH (doc.`categories` == "recipes") SORT doc.`publishedAt` DESC LET #1 = doc.`publishedAt` LET #7 = doc.`categories` LET #5 = doc.`title`   /* view query without materialization */
  5   CalculationNode        1       - LET #3 = { "title" : #5, "date" : #1, "tags" : #7 }   /* simple expression */
  6   ReturnNode             1       - RETURN #3

Indexes used:
 none

Optimization rules applied:
 Id   RuleName
  1   move-calculations-up
  2   move-calculations-up-2
  3   handle-arangosearch-views

The stored values data is LZ4-compressed by default ("lz4"). Set it to "none" on View or index creation to trade space for speed.

db.articles.ensureIndex({
  name: "inv-idx",
  type: "inverted",
  fields: ["categories[*]"],
  primarySort: {
    fields: [
      { field: "publishedAt", direction: "desc" }
    ]
  },
  storedValues: [
    {
      fields: [ "title", "categories"],
      compression: "none"
    }
  ]
});

db._createView("articlesView", "search-alias", { indexes: [
  { collection: "articles", index: "inv-idx" }
] });
{
  "links": {
    "articles": {
      "fields": {
        "categories": {}
      }
    }
  },
  "primarySort": [
    { "field": "publishedAt", "direction": "desc" }
  ],
  "storedValues": [
    { "fields": [ "title", "categories" ], "compression": "none" }
  ]
}

You can additionally enable the ArangoSearch column cache for stored values by setting the cache option in the storedValues definition of arangosearch Views or inverted indexes to true. This always caches stored values in memory, which can improve the query performance.

db.articles.ensureIndex({
  name: "inv-idx",
  type: "inverted",
  fields: ["categories[*]"],
  primarySort: {
    fields: [
      { field: "publishedAt", direction: "desc" }
    ]
  },
  storedValues: [
    {
      fields: [ "title", "categories"],
      cache: true
    }
  ]
});

db._createView("articlesView", "search-alias", { indexes: [
  { collection: "articles", index: "inv-idx" }
] });

See the inverted index storedValues property for details.

{
  "links": {
    "articles": {
      "fields": {
        "categories": {}
      }
    }
  },
  "primarySort": [
    { "field": "publishedAt", "direction": "desc" }
  ],
  "storedValues": [
    { "fields": [ "title", "categories" ], "cache": true }
  ]
}

See the storedValues View property for details.

Condition Optimization Options

The SEARCH operation in AQL accepts an option conditionOptimization to give you control over the search criteria optimization:

FOR doc IN myView
  SEARCH doc.val > 10 AND doc.val > 5 /* more conditions */
  OPTIONS { conditionOptimization: "none" }
  RETURN doc

By default, all conditions get converted into disjunctive normal form (DNF). Numerous optimizations can be applied, like removing redundant or overlapping conditions (such as doc.val > 10 which is included by doc.val > 5). However, converting to DNF and optimizing the conditions can take quite some time even for a low number of nested conditions which produce dozens of conjunctions / disjunctions. It can be faster to just search the index without optimizations.

Also see the SEARCH operation.

Count Approximation

The SEARCH operation in AQL accepts an option countApproximate to control how the total count of rows is calculated if the fullCount option is enabled for a query or when a COLLECT WITH COUNT clause is executed.

By default, rows are actually enumerated for a precise count. In some cases, an estimate might be good enough, however. You can set countApproximate to "cost" for a cost-based approximation. It does not enumerate rows and returns an approximate result with O(1) complexity. It gives a precise result if the SEARCH condition is empty or if it contains a single term query only (e.g. SEARCH doc.field == "value"), the usual eventual consistency of Views aside.

FOR doc IN viewName
  SEARCH doc.name == "Carol"
  OPTIONS { countApproximate: "cost" }
  COLLECT WITH COUNT INTO count
  RETURN count

Also see Faceted Search with ArangoSearch.

Field normalization value caching and caching of Geo Analyzer auxiliary data

ArangoDB Enterprise Edition ArangoGraph

Introduced in: v3.9.5, v3.10.2

Normalization values are computed for fields which are processed with Analyzers that have the "norm" feature enabled. These values are used to score fairer if the same tokens occur repeatedly, to emphasize these documents less.

You can set the cache option to true for individual View links or fields of arangosearch Views, as well as for inverted indexes as the default or for specific fields, to always cache the field normalization values in memory. This can improve the performance of scoring and ranking queries.

You can also enable this option to always cache auxiliary data used for querying fields that are indexed with Geo Analyzers in memory, as the default or for specific fields. This can improve the performance of geo-spatial queries.

db.coll1.ensureIndex({
  name: "inv-idx",
  type: "inverted",
  fields: [
    {
      name: "attr",
      analyzer: "text_en",
      cache: true
    }
  ]
});

db.coll2.ensureIndex({
  name: "inv-idx",
  type: "inverted",
  analyzer: "text_en",
  fields: ["attr1", "attr2"],
  cache: true
});

db._createView("myView", "search-alias", { indexes: [
  { collection: "coll1", index: "inv-idx" },
  { collection: "coll2", index: "inv-idx" }
] });

See the inverted index cache property for details.

{
  "links": {
    "coll1": {
      "fields": {
        "attr": {
          "analyzers": ["text_en"],
          "cache": true
        }
      }
    },
    "coll2": {
      "includeAllFields": true,
      "analyzers": ["text_en"],
      "cache": true
    }
  }
}

See the cache Link property for details.

The "norm" Analyzer feature has performance implications even if the cache is used. You can create custom Analyzers without this feature to disable the normalization and improve the performance. Make sure that the result ranking still matches your expectations without normalization. It is recommended to use normalization for a good scoring behavior.

Primary key caching

Introduced in: v3.9.6, v3.10.2

You can always cache the primary key columns in memory. This can improve the performance of queries that return many documents, making it faster to map document IDs in the index to actual documents.

To enable this feature for inverted indexes and by extension search-alias Views, set the primaryKeyCache property to true when creating inverted indexes.

db.articles.ensureIndex({
  name: "inv-idx",
  type: "inverted",
  fields: ["categories[*]"],
  primaryKeyCache: true
});

db._createView("articlesView", "search-alias", { indexes: [
  { collection: "articles", index: "inv-idx" }
] });

To enable this feature for arangosearch Views, set the primaryKeyCache View property to true on View creation.

{
  "links": {
    "articles": {
      "fields": {
        "categories": {}
      }
    }
  },
  "primaryKeyCache": true
}