AQL Syntax

Query types

An AQL query must either return a result (indicated by usage of the RETURN keyword) or execute a data-modification operation (indicated by usage of one of the keywords INSERT, UPDATE, REPLACE, REMOVE or UPSERT). The AQL parser will return an error if it detects more than one data-modification operation in the same query or if it cannot figure out if the query is meant to be a data retrieval or a modification operation.

AQL only allows one query in a single query string; thus semicolons to indicate the end of one query and separate multiple queries (as seen in SQL) are not allowed.

Whitespace

Whitespace (blanks, carriage returns, line feeds, and tab stops) can be used in the query text to increase its readability. Tokens have to be separated by any number of whitespace. Whitespace within strings or names must be enclosed in quotes in order to be preserved.

Comments

Comments can be embedded at any position in a query. The text contained in the comment is ignored by the AQL parser.

Multi-line comments cannot be nested, which means subsequent comment starts within comments are ignored, comment ends will end the comment.

AQL supports two types of comments:

  • Single line comments: These start with a double forward slash and end at the end of the line, or the end of the query string (whichever is first).
  • Multi line comments: These start with a forward slash and asterisk, and end with an asterisk and a following forward slash. They can span as many lines as necessary.
/* this is a comment */ RETURN 1
/* these */ RETURN /* are */ 1 /* multiple */ + /* comments */ 1
/* this is
   a multi line
   comment */
// a single line comment

Keywords

On the top level, AQL offers the following high-level operations:

OperationDescription
FORArray iteration
RETURNResults projection
FILTERNon-View results filtering
SEARCHView results filtering
SORTResult sorting
LIMITResult slicing
LETVariable assignment
COLLECTResult grouping
WINDOWAggregations over related rows
INSERTInsertion of new documents
UPDATE(Partial) update of existing documents
REPLACEReplacement of existing documents
REMOVERemoval of existing documents
UPSERTInsertion of new or update of existing documents
WITHCollection declaration

Each of the above operations can be initiated in a query by using a keyword of the same name. An AQL query can (and typically does) consist of multiple of the above operations.

An example AQL query may look like this:

FOR u IN users
  FILTER u.type == "newbie" && u.active == true
  RETURN u.name

In this example query, the terms FOR, FILTER, and RETURN initiate the higher-level operation according to their name. These terms are also keywords, meaning that they have a special meaning in the language.

For example, the query parser will use the keywords to find out which high-level operations to execute. That also means keywords can only be used at certain locations in a query. This also makes all keywords reserved words that must not be used for other purposes than they are intended for.

For example, it is not possible to use a keyword as literal unquoted string (identifier) for a collection or attribute name. If a collection or attribute needs to have the same name as a keyword, then the collection or attribute name needs to be quoted in the query (also see Names).

Keywords are case-insensitive, meaning they can be specified in lower, upper, or mixed case in queries. In this documentation, all keywords are written in upper case to make them distinguishable from other query parts.

There are a few more keywords in addition to the higher-level operation keywords. Additional keywords may be added in future versions of ArangoDB. The complete list of keywords is currently:

  • AGGREGATE
  • ALL
  • ALL_SHORTEST_PATHS
  • AND
  • ANY
  • ASC
  • COLLECT
  • DESC
  • DISTINCT
  • FALSE
  • FILTER
  • FOR
  • GRAPH
  • IN
  • INBOUND
  • INSERT
  • INTO
  • K_PATHS
  • K_SHORTEST_PATHS
  • LET
  • LIKE
  • LIMIT
  • NONE
  • NOT
  • NULL
  • OR
  • OUTBOUND
  • REMOVE
  • REPLACE
  • RETURN
  • SHORTEST_PATH
  • SORT
  • TRUE
  • UPDATE
  • UPSERT
  • WINDOW
  • WITH

On top of that, there are a few words used in language constructs which are not reserved keywords. You can use them as collection or attribute names without having to quote them. The query parser can identify them as keyword-like based on the context:

Last but not least, there are special variables which are available in certain contexts. Unlike keywords, they are case-sensitive:

If you define a variable with the same name in the same scope, then its value will be and remain at what you set it to. Hence you need to avoid these names for your own variables if you want to access the special variable values.

Names

In general, names are used to identify the following things in AQL queries:

  • collections
  • attributes
  • variables
  • functions

Names in AQL are always case-sensitive. The maximum supported length for collection/View names is 256 bytes. Variable names can be longer, but are discouraged.

Keywords should not be used as names. If you want to use a reserved keyword as name anyway, the name must be enclosed in backticks or forward ticks. This is referred to as quoting.

FOR doc IN `filter`
  RETURN doc.`sort`

Due to the backticks, filter and sort are interpreted as names and not as keywords here.

You can also use forward ticks:

FOR f IN ´filter´
  RETURN f.´sort´

Instead of ticks, you may use the bracket notation for the attribute access:

FOR f IN `filter`
  RETURN f["sort"]

sort is a string literal in quote marks in this alternative and does thus not conflict with the reserved keyword.

Quoting with ticks is also required if certain characters such as hyphen minus (-) are contained in a name, namely if they are used for operators in AQL:

LET `my-var` = 42

Collection names

You can typically use collection names in queries as they are. If a collection happens to have the same name as a keyword, the name must be enclosed in backticks or forward ticks.

Quoting with ticks is also required if special characters such as hyphen minus (-) are contained in a collection name:

FOR doc IN `my-coll`
  RETURN doc

The collection my-coll has a dash in its name, but - is an arithmetic operator for subtraction in AQL. The backticks quote the collection name to refer to the collection correctly.

If you use extended collection and View names ( --database.extended-names startup option), they may contain spaces, or non-ASCII characters such as Japanese or Arabic letters, emojis, letters with accentuation, and other UTF-8 characters. Quoting is required in these cases, too:

FOR doc IN ´🥑~колекція =)´
  RETURN doc

The collection name contains characters that are allowed using the extended naming constraints and is quoted with forward ticks.

Note that quoting the name with " or ' is not possible for collections as they cannot be string literals in quote marks.

For information about the naming constraints for collections, see Collection names.

Attribute names

When referring to attributes of documents from a collection, the fully qualified attribute name must be used. This is because multiple collections with ambiguous attribute names may be used in a query. To avoid any ambiguity, it is not allowed to refer to an unqualified attribute name.

Also see the naming restrictions for Attribute names.

FOR u IN users
  FOR f IN friends
    FILTER u.active == true && f.active == true && u.id == f.userId
    RETURN u.name

In the above example, the attribute names active, name, id, and userId are qualified using the collection names they belong to (u and f respectively).

Variable names

AQL allows you to assign values to additional variables in a query. All variables that are assigned a value must have a name that is unique within the context of the query.

FOR u IN users
  LET friends = u.friends
  RETURN { "name" : u.name, "friends" : friends }

In the above query, users is a collection name, and both u and friends are variable names. This is because the FOR and LET operations need target variables to store their intermediate results.

Variable names should be different from the names of any collection name used in the same query to avoid shadowing, which can render a collection with the same name inaccessible in the query after the variable assignment:

LET users = []
FOR u IN users // iterates over the "users" variable, not the "users" collection
  RETURN u

Allowed characters in variable names are the letters a to z (both in lower and upper case), the numbers 0 to 9, the underscore (_) symbol and the dollar ($) sign. A variable name must not start with a number. If a variable name starts with one or multiple underscore characters, the underscore(s) must be followed by least one letter (a-z or A-Z). The dollar sign can only be used as the very first character in a variable name and must be followed by a letter.