Features and Improvements in ArangoDB 3.10

Support for ARM, computed values, a new managed graph type with automated sharding, various search features, AQL optimizations

The following list shows in detail which features have been added or improved in ArangoDB 3.10. ArangoDB 3.10 also contains several bug fixes that are not listed here.

Native ARM Support

ArangoDB is now available for the ARM architecture, in addition to the x86-64 architecture.

It can natively run on Apple silicon (e.g. M1 chips). It was already possible to run 3.8.x and older versions on these systems via Rosetta 2 emulation, but not 3.9.x because of its use of AVX instructions, which Rosetta 2 does not emulate. 3.10.x runs on this hardware again, but now without emulation.

ArangoDB 3.10.x also runs on 64-bit ARM (AArch64, Little Endian) chips under Linux. The minimum requirement is an ARMv8 chip with Neon (SIMD extension).

SmartGraphs (Enterprise Edition)

SmartGraphs and SatelliteGraphs on a single server

It is now possible to test SmartGraphs and SatelliteGraphs on a single server and then to port them to a cluster with multiple servers.

You can create SmartGraphs, Disjoint SmartGraphs, SmartGraphs using SatelliteCollections, Disjoint SmartGraphs using SatelliteCollections, as well as SatelliteGraphs in the usual way, using arangosh for instance, but on a single server, then dump them, start a cluster (with multiple servers) and restore the graphs in the cluster. The graphs and the collections will keep all properties that are kept when the graph is already created in a cluster.

Also see SmartGraphs and SatelliteGraphs on a Single Server.

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

EnterpriseGraphs (Enterprise Edition)

The 3.10 version of ArangoDB introduces a specialized version of SmartGraphs, called EnterpriseGraphs.

EnterpriseGraphs come with a concept of automated sharding key selection, meaning that the sharding key is randomly selected while ensuring that all their adjacent edges are co-located on the same servers, whenever possible. This approach provides significant advantages as it minimizes the impact of having suboptimal sharding keys defined when creating the graph.

See the EnterpriseGraphs chapter for more details.

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

(Disjoint) Hybrid SmartGraphs renaming

(Disjoint) Hybrid SmartGraphs were renamed to (Disjoint) SmartGraphs using SatelliteCollections. The functionality and behavior of both types of graphs stay the same.

Computed Values

This feature lets you define expressions on the collection level that run on inserts, modifications, or both. You can access the data of the current document to compute new values using a subset of AQL.

Possible use cases are to add timestamps of the creation or last modification to every document, to add default attributes, or to automatically process attributes for indexing purposes, like filtering, combining multiple attributes into one, and to convert characters to lowercase.

The following example uses the JavaScript API to create a collection with two computed values, one to add a timestamp of the document creation, and another to maintain an attribute that combines two other attributes:

var coll = db._create("users", {
  computedValues: [
    {
      name: "createdAt",
      expression: "RETURN DATE_ISO8601(DATE_NOW())",
      overwrite: true,
      computeOn: ["insert"]
    },
    {
      name: "fullName",
      expression: "RETURN LOWER(CONCAT_SEPARATOR(' ', @doc.firstName, @doc.lastName))",
      overwrite: false,
      computeOn: ["insert", "update", "replace"], // default
      keepNull: false,
      failOnWarning: true
    }
  ]
});
var doc = db.users.save({ firstName: "Paula", lastName: "Plant" });
/* Stored document:
  {
    "createdAt": "2022-08-08T17:14:37.362Z",
    "fullName": "paula plant",
    "firstName": "Paula",
    "lastName": "Plant"
  }
*/

See Computed Values for more information and examples.

ArangoSearch

Inverted collection indexes

A new inverted index type is available that you can define at the collection level. You can use these indexes similar to arangosearch Views, to accelerate queries like value lookups, range queries, accent- and case-insensitive search, wildcard and fuzzy search, nested search, as well as for sophisticated full-text search with the ability to search for words, phrases, and more.

db.imdb_vertices.ensureIndex({
  type: "inverted",
  name: "inv-idx",
  fields: [
    "title",
    { name: "description", analyzer: "text_en" }
  ]
});

db._query(`FOR doc IN imdb_vertices OPTIONS { indexHint: "inv-idx", forceIndexHint: true }
  FILTER TOKENS("neo morpheus", "text_en") ALL IN doc.description
  RETURN doc.title`);

You need to use an index hint to utilize an inverted index. Note that the FOR loop uses a collection, not a View, and documents are matched using a FILTER operation. Filter conditions work similar to the SEARCH operation but you don’t need to specify Analyzers with the ANALYZER() function in queries.

Like Views, this type of index is eventually consistent.

See Inverted index for details.

search-alias Views

A new search-alias View type was added to let you add one or more inverted indexes to a View, enabling federated searching over multiple collections, ranking of search results by relevance, and search highlighting, similar to arangosearch Views. This is on top of the filtering capabilities provided by the inverted indexes, including full-text processing with Analyzers and more.

db._createView("view", "search-alias", {
  indexes: [
    { collection: "coll", index: "inv-idx" }
  ]
});

db._query(`FOR doc IN imdb
  SEARCH STARTS_WITH(doc.title, "The Matrix") AND
  PHRASE(doc.description, "invasion", 2, "machine")
  RETURN doc`);

A key difference between arangosearch and search-alias Views is that you don’t need to specify an Analyzer context with the ANALYZER() function in queries because it is inferred from the inverted index definition, which only supports a single Analyzer per field.

Also see Getting started with ArangoSearch.

Search highlighting (Enterprise Edition)

Views now support search highlighting, letting you retrieve the positions of matches within strings, to highlight what was found in search results.

You need to index attributes with custom Analyzers that have the new offset feature enabled to use this feature. You can then call the OFFSET_INFO() function to get the start offsets and lengths of the matches (in bytes).

You can use the SUBSTRING_BYTES() function together with the VALUE() function to extract a match.

db._create("food");
db.food.save({ name: "avocado", description: { en: "The avocado is a medium-sized, evergreen tree, native to the Americas." } });
db.food.save({ name: "carrot", description: { en: "The carrot is a root vegetable, typically orange in color, native to Europe and Southwestern Asia." } });
db.food.save({ name: "chili pepper", description: { en: "Chili peppers are varieties of the berry-fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, cultivated for their pungency." } });
db.food.save({ name: "tomato", description: { en: "The tomato is the edible berry of the tomato plant." } });

var analyzers = require("@arangodb/analyzers");
var analyzer = analyzers.save("text_en_offset", "text", { locale: "en", stopwords: [] }, ["frequency", "norm", "position", "offset"]);

db._createView("food_view", "arangosearch", { links: { food: { fields: { description: { fields: { en: { analyzers: ["text_en_offset"] } } } } } } });
db._query(`FOR doc IN food_view
  SEARCH ANALYZER(
    TOKENS("avocado tomato", "text_en_offset") ANY == doc.description.en OR
    PHRASE(doc.description.en, "cultivated", 2, "pungency") OR
    STARTS_WITH(doc.description.en, "cap")
  , "text_en_offset")
  FOR offsetInfo IN OFFSET_INFO(doc, ["description.en"])
    RETURN {
      description: doc.description,
      name: offsetInfo.name,
      matches: offsetInfo.offsets[* RETURN {
        offset: CURRENT,
        match: SUBSTRING_BYTES(VALUE(doc, offsetInfo.name), CURRENT[0], CURRENT[1])
      }]
    }`);
[
  {
    "description" : { "en" : "The avocado is a medium-sized, evergreen tree, native to the Americas." },
    "name" : [ "description", "en" ],
    "matches" : [
      { "offset" : [4, 11], "match" : "avocado" }
    ]
  },
  {
    "description" : { "en" : "Chili peppers are varieties of the berry-fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, cultivated for their pungency." },
    "name" : [ "description", "en" ],
    "matches" : [
      { "offset" : [82, 111], "match" : "cultivated for their pungency" },
      { "offset" : [72, 80], "match" : "Capsicum" }
    ]
  },
  {
    "description" : { "en" : "The tomato is the edible berry of the tomato plant." },
    "name" : [ "description", "en" ],
    "matches" : [
      { "offset" : [4, 10], "match" : "tomato" },
      { "offset" : [38, 44], "match" : "tomato" }
    ]
  }
]
*/

See Search highlighting with ArangoSearch for details.

Nested search (Enterprise Edition)

Nested search allows you to index arrays of objects in a way that lets you search the sub-objects with all the conditions met by a single sub-object instead of each condition being met by any of the sub-objects.

Consider a document like the following:

{
  "dimensions": [
    { "type": "height", "value": 35 },
    { "type": "width", "value": 60 }
  ]
}

The following search query matches the document because the individual conditions are satisfied by one of the nested objects:

FOR doc IN viewName
  SEARCH doc.dimensions.type == "height" AND doc.dimensions.value > 40
  RETURN doc

If you only want to find documents where both conditions are true for a single nested object, you could post-filter the search results:

FOR doc IN viewName
  SEARCH doc.dimensions.type == "height" AND doc.dimensions.value > 40
  FILTER LENGTH(doc.dimensions[* FILTER CURRENT.type == "height" AND CURRENT.value > 40]) > 0
  RETURN doc

The new nested search feature allows you to simplify the query and get better performance:

FOR doc IN viewName
  SEARCH doc.dimensions[? FILTER CURRENT.type == "height" AND CURRENT.value > 40]
  RETURN doc

See Nested search with ArangoSearch using Views and the nested search example using Inverted indexes for details.

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

Optimization rule arangosearch-constrained-sort

This new optimization rule brings significant performance improvements by allowing you to perform sorting and limiting inside arangosearch Views enumeration node, if using just scoring for a sort operation.

ArangoSearch column cache (Enterprise Edition)

arangosearch Views support new caching options.

Introduced in: v3.9.5, v3.10.2

  • You can enable the new cache option for individual View links or fields to always cache field normalization values in memory. This can improve the performance of scoring and ranking queries.

    It also enables caching of auxiliary data used for querying fields that are indexed with Geo Analyzers. This can improve the performance of geo-spatial queries.

  • You can enable the new cache option in the definition of a storedValues View property to always cache stored values in memory. This can improve the query performance if stored values are involved.


Introduced in: v3.9.6, v3.10.2

  • You can enable the new primarySortCache View property to always cache the primary sort columns in memory. This can improve the performance of queries that utilize the primary sort order.

  • You can enable the new primaryKeyCache View property to always cache the primary key column in memory. This can improve the performance of queries that return many documents.


Inverted indexes also support similar new caching options.

Introduced in: v3.10.2

  • A new cache option for inverted indexes as the default or for specific fields to always cache field normalization values and Geo Analyzer auxiliary data in memory.

  • A new cache option per object in the definition of the storedValues elements to always cache stored values in memory.

  • A new cache option in the primarySort property to always cache the primary sort columns in memory.

  • A new primaryKeyCache property for inverted indexes to always cache the primary key column in memory.


The cache size can be controlled with the new --arangosearch.columns-cache-limit startup option and monitored via the new arangodb_search_columns_cache_size metric.

ArangoSearch caching is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

See Optimizing View and inverted index query performance for examples.

If you use ArangoSearch caching in supported 3.9 versions and upgrade an Active Failover deployment to 3.10, you may need to re-configure the cache-related options and thus recreate inverted indexes and Views. See Known Issues in 3.10.

Skip ArangoSearch recovery

With --arangosearch.skip-recovery, you can skip data recovery for the specified View links and inverted indexes on startup. Values for this startup option should have the format <collection-name>/<link-id>, <collection-name>/<index-id>, or <collection-name>/<index-name>. On DB-Servers, the <collection-name> part should contain a shard name.

Fail ArangoSearch queries on out-of-sync

With the --arangosearch.fail-queries-on-out-of-sync startup option you can let write operations fail if arangosearch View links or inverted indexes are not up-to-date with the collection data. The option is set to false by default. Queries on out-of-sync links/indexes are answered normally, but the return data may be incomplete. If set to true, any data retrieval queries on out-of-sync links/indexes are going to fail with error “collection/view is out of sync” (error code 1481).

Disable user-defined AQL functions

Introduced in: v3.10.4

The new --javascript.user-defined-functions startup option lets you disable user-defined AQL functions so that no user-defined JavaScript code of UDFs runs on the server. This can be useful to close off a potential attack vector in case no user-defined AQL functions are used. Also see Server security options.

ArangoSearch metrics and figures

The Metrics HTTP API has been extended with metrics for ArangoSearch for monitoring arangosearch View links and inverted indexes.

The following metrics have been added in ArangoDB 3.10:

LabelDescription
arangodb_search_cleanup_timeAverage time of few last cleanups.
arangodb_search_commit_timeAverage time of few last commits.
arangodb_search_consolidation_timeAverage time of few last consolidations.
arangodb_search_index_sizeSize of the index in bytes for current snapshot.
arangodb_search_num_docsNumber of documents for current snapshot.
arangodb_search_num_failed_cleanupsNumber of failed cleanups.
arangodb_search_num_failed_commitsNumber of failed commits.
arangodb_search_num_failed_consolidationsNumber of failed consolidations.
arangodb_search_num_filesNumber of files for current snapshot.
arangodb_search_num_live_docsNumber of live documents for current snapshot.
arangodb_search_num_out_of_sync_linksNumber of out-of-sync arangosearch links/inverted indexes.
arangodb_search_num_segmentsNumber of segments for current snapshot.
arangodb_search_columns_cache_sizeSize of all ArangoSearch columns currently loaded into the cache.

These metrics are exposed by single servers and DB-Servers.

Additionally, the JavaScript and HTTP API for indexes has been extended with figures for arangosearch View links and inverted indexes.

In arangosh, you can call db.<collection>.indexes(true, true); to get at this information. Also see Listing all indexes of a collection. The information has the following structure:

{
  "figures" : { 
    "numDocs" : 4,      // total number of documents in the index with removals
    "numLiveDocs" : 4,  // total number of documents in the index without removals
    "numSegments" : 1,  // total number of index segments
    "numFiles" : 8,     // total number of index files
    "indexSize" : 1358  // size of the index in bytes
  }, ...
}

Note that the number of (live) docs may differ from the actual number of documents if the nested search feature is used.

Analyzers

minhash Analyzer (Enterprise Edition)

This new Analyzer applies another Analyzer, for example, a text Analyzer to tokenize text into words, and then computes so called MinHash signatures from the tokens using a locality-sensitive hash function. The result lets you approximate the Jaccard similarity of sets.

A common use case is to compare sets with many elements for entity resolution, such as for finding duplicate records, based on how many common elements they have.

You can use the Analyzer with a new inverted index or arangosearch View to quickly find candidates for the actual Jaccard similarity comparisons you want to perform.

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

See Analyzers for details.

classification Analyzer (Enterprise Edition)

A new, experimental Analyzer for classifying individual tokens or entire inputs using a supervised fastText word embedding model that you provide.

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

See Analyzers for details.

nearest_neighbors Analyzer (Enterprise Edition)

A new, experimental Analyzer for finding similar tokens using a supervised fastText word embedding model that you provide.

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

See Analyzers for details.

geo_s2 Analyzer (Enterprise Edition)

Introduced in: v3.10.5

This new Analyzer lets you index GeoJSON data with inverted indexes or Views similar to the existing geojson Analyzer, but it internally uses a format for storing the geo-spatial data that is more efficient.

You can choose between different formats to make a tradeoff between the size on disk, the precision, and query performance:

  • 8 bytes per coordinate pair using 4-byte integer values, with limited precision.
  • 16 bytes per coordinate pair using 8-byte floating-point values, which is still more compact than the VelocyPack format used by the geojson Analyzer
  • 24 bytes per coordinate pair using the native Google S2 format to reduce the number of computations necessary when you execute geo-spatial queries.

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

See Analyzers for details.

Web Interface

The 3.10 release of ArangoDB introduces a new Web UI for Views that allows you to view, configure, or drop arangosearch Views.

AQL

All Shortest Paths Graph Traversal

In addition to finding any shortest path and enumerating all paths between two vertices in order of increasing length, you can now use the new ALL_SHORTEST_PATHS graph traversal algorithm in AQL to get all paths of shortest length:

FOR p IN OUTBOUND ALL_SHORTEST_PATHS 'places/Carlisle' TO 'places/London'
  GRAPH 'kShortestPathsGraph'
    RETURN { places: p.vertices[*].label }

See All Shortest Paths in AQL for details.

Parallelism for Sharded Graphs (Enterprise Edition)

The 3.10 release supports traversal parallelism for Sharded Graphs, which means that traversals with many start vertices can now run in parallel. An almost linear performance improvement has been achieved, so the parallel processing of threads leads to faster results.

This feature supports all types of graphs - General Graphs, SmartGraphs, EnterpriseGraphs (including Disjoint).

Traversals with many start vertices can now run in parallel. A traversal always starts with one single start vertex and then explores the vertex neighborhood. When you want to explore the neighborhoods of multiple vertices, you now have the option to do multiple operations in parallel.

The example below shows how to use parallelism to allow using up to three threads to search for v/1, v/2, and v/3 in parallel and independent of one another. Note that parallelism increases the memory usage of the query due to having multiple operations performed simultaneously, instead of one after the other.

FOR startVertex IN ["v/1", "v/2", "v/3", "v/4"]
FOR v,e,p IN 1..3 OUTBOUND startVertex GRAPH "yourShardedGraph" OPTIONS {parallelism: 3}
[...]

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

GeoJSON changes

The 3.10 release of ArangoDB conforms to the standards specified in GeoJSON  and GeoJSON Mode. This diverges from the previous implementation in two fundamental ways:

  1. The syntax of GeoJSON objects is interpreted so that lines on the sphere are geodesics (pieces of great circles). This is in particular true for boundaries of polygons. No special treatment of longitude-latitude-rectangles is done any more.

  2. Linear rings in polygons are no longer automatically normalized so that the “smaller” of the two connected components are the interior. This allows specifying polygons that cover more than half of the surface of the Earth and conforms to the GeoJSON standard. See GeoJSON interpretation for examples.

Additionally, the reported issues, which occasionally produced wrong results in geo queries when using geo indexes, have been fixed.

For existing users who do not wish to rebuild their geo indexes and continue using the previous behavior, the legacyPolygons index option has been introduced to guarantee backwards compatibility.

For existing users who wish to take advantage of the new standard behavior, geo indexes need to be dropped and recreated after an upgrade.

See Legacy Polygons for details and for hints about upgrading to version 3.10 or later.

If you use geojson Analyzers including in arangosearch Views and upgrade from a version below 3.10 to a version of 3.10 or higher, the interpretation of GeoJSON Polygons changes. See the legacy property of the geojson Analyzer for details and how to restore the old behavior.

Traversal Projections (Enterprise Edition)

Starting with version 3.10, the AQL optimizer automatically detects which document attributes you access in traversal queries and optimizes the data loading. This optimization is beneficial if you have large document sizes but only access small parts of the documents.

By default, up to 5 attributes are extracted instead of loading the full document. You can control this number with the maxProjections option, which is now supported for graph traversals. See also how to use maxProjections with FOR loops.

In the following query, the accessed attributes are the name attribute of the neighbor vertices and the vertex attribute of the edges (via the path variable):

FOR v, e, p IN 1..3 OUTBOUND "persons/alice" GRAPH "knows_graph" OPTIONS { maxProjections: 5 }
  RETURN { name: v.name, vertices: p.edges[*].vertex }

The use of projections is indicated in the query explain output:

Execution plan:
 Id   NodeType          Est.   Comment
  1   SingletonNode        1   * ROOT
  2   TraversalNode        1     - FOR v  /* vertex (projections: `name`) */, p  /* paths: edges (projections: `_from`, `_to`, `vertex`) */ IN 1..3  /* min..maxPathDepth */ OUTBOUND 'persons/alice' /* startnode */  GRAPH 'knows_graph'
  3   CalculationNode      1       - LET #7 = { "name" : v.`name`, "vertex" : p.`edges`[*].`vertex` }   /* simple expression */
  4   ReturnNode           1       - RETURN #7

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

Number of filtered documents in profiling output

The AQL query profiling output now shows the number of filtered inputs for each execution node separately, so that it is more visible how often filter conditions are invoked and how effective they are. Previously the number of filtered inputs was only available as a total value in the profiling output, and it wasn’t clear which execution node caused which amount of filtering.

For example, consider the following query:

FOR doc1 IN collection
  FILTER doc1.value1 < 1000  /* uses index */
  FILTER doc1.value2 NOT IN [1, 4, 7]  /* post filter */
  FOR doc2 IN collection
    FILTER doc1.value1 == doc2.value2  /* uses index */
    FILTER doc2.value2 != 5  /* post filter */
    RETURN doc2

The profiling output for this query now shows how often the filters were invoked for the different execution nodes:

Execution plan:
 Id   NodeType        Calls   Items   Filtered   Runtime [s]   Comment
  1   SingletonNode       1       1          0       0.00008   * ROOT
 14   IndexNode           1     700        300       0.00694     - FOR doc1 IN collection   /* persistent index scan, projections: `value1`, `value2` */    FILTER (doc1.`value2` not in [ 1, 4, 7 ])   /* early pruning */
 13   IndexNode          61   60000      10000       0.11745       - FOR doc2 IN collection   /* persistent index scan */    FILTER (doc2.`value2` != 5)   /* early pruning */
 12   ReturnNode         61   60000          0       0.00212         - RETURN doc2

Indexes used:
 By   Name                      Type         Collection   Unique   Sparse   Selectivity   Fields         Ranges
 14   idx_1727463382256189440   persistent   collection   false    false        99.99 %   [ `value1` ]   (doc1.`value1` < 1000)
 13   idx_1727463477736374272   persistent   collection   false    false         0.01 %   [ `value2` ]   (doc1.`value1` == doc2.`value2`)

Query Statistics:
 Writes Exec   Writes Ign   Scan Full   Scan Index   Cache Hits/Misses   Filtered   Peak Mem [b]   Exec Time [s]
           0            0           0        71000               0 / 0      10300          98304         0.13026

Number of cache hits / cache misses in profiling output

When profiling an AQL query via db._profileQuery(...) command or via the web interface, the query profile output will now contain the number of index entries read from in-memory caches (usable for edge and persistent indexes) plus the number of cache misses.

In the following example query, there are in-memory caches present for both indexes used in the query. However, only the innermost index node #13 can use the cache, because the outer FOR loop does not use an equality lookup.

Query String (270 chars, cacheable: false):
 FOR doc1 IN collection FILTER doc1.value1 < 1000 FILTER doc1.value2 NOT IN [1, 4, 7]  
 FOR doc2 IN collection FILTER doc1.value1 == doc2.value2 FILTER doc2.value2 != 5 RETURN doc2

Execution plan:
 Id   NodeType        Calls   Items   Filtered   Runtime [s]   Comment
  1   SingletonNode       1       1          0       0.00008   * ROOT
 14   IndexNode           1     700        300       0.00630     - FOR doc1 IN collection   /* persistent index scan, projections: `value1`, `value2` */    FILTER (doc1.`value2` not in [ 1, 4, 7 ])   /* early pruning */
 13   IndexNode          61   60000      10000       0.14254       - FOR doc2 IN collection   /* persistent index scan */    FILTER (doc2.`value2` != 5)   /* early pruning */
 12   ReturnNode         61   60000          0       0.00168         - RETURN doc2

Indexes used:
 By   Name                      Type         Collection   Unique   Sparse   Cache   Selectivity   Fields         Ranges
 14   idx_1727463613020504064   persistent   collection   false    false    true        99.99 %   [ `value1` ]   (doc1.`value1` < 1000)
 13   idx_1727463601873092608   persistent   collection   false    false    true         0.01 %   [ `value2` ]   (doc1.`value1` == doc2.`value2`)

Query Statistics:
 Writes Exec   Writes Ign   Scan Full   Scan Index   Cache Hits/Misses   Filtered   Peak Mem [b]   Exec Time [s]
           0            0           0        71000            689 / 11      10300          98304         0.15389

Number of cluster requests in profiling output

Introduced in: v3.9.5, v3.10.2

The query profiling output in the web interface and arangosh now shows the number of HTTP requests for queries that you run against cluster deployments in the Query Statistics:

Query String (33 chars, cacheable: false):
 FOR doc IN coll
   RETURN doc._key

Execution plan:
 Id   NodeType          Site  Calls   Items   Filtered   Runtime [s]   Comment
  1   SingletonNode     DBS       3       3          0       0.00024   * ROOT
  9   IndexNode         DBS       3       0          0       0.00060     - FOR doc IN coll   /* primary index scan, index only (projections: `_key`), 3 shard(s) */    
  3   CalculationNode   DBS       3       0          0       0.00025       - LET #1 = doc.`_key`   /* attribute expression */   /* collections used: doc : coll */
  7   RemoteNode        COOR      6       0          0       0.00227       - REMOTE
  8   GatherNode        COOR      2       0          0       0.00209       - GATHER   /* parallel, unsorted */
  4   ReturnNode        COOR      2       0          0       0.00008       - RETURN #1

Indexes used:
 By   Name      Type      Collection   Unique   Sparse   Cache   Selectivity   Fields       Stored values   Ranges
  9   primary   primary   coll         true     false    false      100.00 %   [ `_key` ]   [  ]            *

Optimization rules applied:
 Id   RuleName
  1   scatter-in-cluster
  2   distribute-filtercalc-to-cluster
  3   remove-unnecessary-remote-scatter
  4   reduce-extraction-to-projection
  5   parallelize-gather

Query Statistics:
 Writes Exec   Writes Ign   Scan Full   Scan Index   Cache Hits/Misses   Filtered   Requests   Peak Mem [b]   Exec Time [s]
           0            0           0            0               0 / 0          0          9          32768         0.00564

Index Lookup Optimization

ArangoDB 3.10 features a new optimization for index lookups that can help to speed up index accesses with post-filter conditions. The optimization is triggered if an index is used that does not cover all required attributes for the query, but the index lookup post-filter conditions only access attributes that are part of the index.

For example, if you have a collection with an index on value1 and value2, a query like below can only partially utilize the index for the lookup:

FOR doc IN collection
  FILTER doc.value1 == @value1   /* uses the index */
  FILTER ABS(doc.value2) != @value2   /* does not use the index */
  RETURN doc

In this case, previous versions of ArangoDB always fetched the full documents from the storage engine for all index entries that matched the index lookup conditions. 3.10 will now only fetch the full documents from the storage engine for all index entries that matched the index lookup conditions, and that satisfy the index lookup post-filter conditions, too.

If the post-filter conditions filter out a lot of documents, this optimization can significantly speed up queries that produce large result sets from index lookups but filter many of the documents away with post-filter conditions.

See Filter Projections Optimization for details.

Lookahead for Multi-Dimensional Indexes

The multi-dimensional index type zkd (experimental) now supports an optional index hint for tweaking performance:

FOR  IN  OPTIONS { lookahead: 32 }

See Lookahead Index Hint.

Question mark operator

The new [? ... ] array operator is a shorthand for an inline filter with a surrounding length check:

LET arr = [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]
RETURN arr[? 2 FILTER CURRENT % 2 == 0] // true

/* Equivalent expression:
RETURN LENGTH(arr[* FILTER CURRENT % 2 == 0]) == 2
*/

The quantifier can be a number, a range, NONE, ANY, ALL, or AT LEAST.

This operator is used for the new Nested search feature (Enterprise Edition only).

See Array Operators for details.

New AT LEAST array comparison operator

You can now combine one of the supported comparison operators with the special AT LEAST (<expression>) operator to require an arbitrary number of elements to satisfy the condition to evaluate to true. You can use a static number or calculate it dynamically using an expression:

[ 1, 2, 3 ]  AT LEAST (2) IN  [ 2, 3, 4 ]  // true
["foo", "bar"]  AT LEAST (1+1) ==  "foo"   // false

See Array Comparison Operators. The AT LEAST operator is also supported by ArangoSearch in the SEARCH operation.

New and Changed AQL Functions

AQL functions added to the 3.10 Enterprise Edition:

  • OFFSET_INFO(): An ArangoSearch function to get the start offsets and lengths of matches for search highlighting.

  • MINHASH(): A new function for locality-sensitive hashing to approximate the Jaccard similarity.

  • MINHASH_COUNT(): A helper function to calculate the number of hashes (MinHash signature size) needed to not exceed the specified error amount.

  • MINHASH_ERROR(): A helper function to calculate the error amount based on the number of hashes (MinHash signature size).

  • MINHASH_MATCH(): A new ArangoSearch function to match documents with an approximate Jaccard similarity of at least the specified threshold that are indexed by a View.

AQL functions added to all editions of 3.10:

  • SUBSTRING_BYTES(): A function to get a string subset using a start and length in bytes instead of in number of characters.

  • VALUE(): A new document function to dynamically get an attribute value of an object, using an array to specify the path.

  • KEEP_RECURSIVE(): A document function to recursively keep attributes from objects/documents, as a counterpart to UNSET_RECURSIVE().

AQL functions changed in 3.10:

  • MERGE_RECURSIVE(): You can now call the function with a single argument instead of at least two. It also accepts an array of objects now, matching the behavior of the MERGE() function.

  • EXISTS(): The function supports a new signature EXISTS(doc.attr, "nested") to check whether the specified attribute is indexed as nested field by a View or inverted index (introduced in v3.10.1).

Edge cache refilling (experimental)

Introduced in: v3.9.6, v3.10.2

A new feature to automatically refill the in-memory edge cache is available. When edges are added, modified, or removed, these changes are tracked and a background thread tries to update the edge cache accordingly if the feature is enabled, by adding new, updating existing, or deleting and refilling cache entries.

You can enable it for individual INSERT, UPDATE, REPLACE, and REMOVE operations in AQL queries (using OPTIONS { refillIndexCaches: true }), for individual document API requests that insert, update, replace, or remove single or multiple edge documents (by setting refillIndexCaches=true as query parameter), as well as enable it by default using the new --rocksdb.auto-refill-index-caches-on-modify startup option.

The new --rocksdb.auto-refill-index-caches-queue-capacity startup option restricts how many edge cache entries the background thread can queue at most. This limits the memory usage for the case of the background thread being slower than other operations that invalidate edge cache entries.

The background refilling is done on a best-effort basis and not guaranteed to succeed, for example, if there is no memory available for the cache subsystem, or during cache grow/shrink operations. A background thread is used so that foreground write operations are not slowed down by a lot. It may still cause additional I/O activity to look up data from the storage engine to repopulate the cache.

In addition to refilling the edge cache, the cache can also automatically be seeded on server startup. Use the new --rocksdb.auto-fill-index-caches-on-startup startup option to enable this feature. It may cause additional CPU and I/O load. You can limit how many index filling operations can execute concurrently with the --rocksdb.max-concurrent-index-fill-tasks option. The lower this number, the lower the impact of the cache filling, but the longer it takes to complete.

The following metrics are available:

LabelDescription
rocksdb_cache_auto_refill_loaded_totalTotal number of queued items for in-memory index caches refilling.
rocksdb_cache_auto_refill_dropped_totalTotal number of dropped items for in-memory index caches refilling.
rocksdb_cache_full_index_refills_totalTotal number of in-memory index caches refill operations for entire indexes.

This feature is experimental.

Also see:

Extended query explain statistics

Introduced in: v3.10.4

The query explain result now includes the peak memory usage and execution time. This helps finding queries that use a lot of memory or take long to build the execution plan.

The additional statistics are displayed at the end of the output in the web interface (using the Explain button in the QUERIES section) and in arangosh (using db._explain()):

44 rule(s) executed, 1 plan(s) created, peak mem [b]: 32768, exec time [s]: 0.00214

The HTTP API returns the extended statistics in the stats attribute when you use the POST /_api/explain endpoint:

{
  ...
  "stats": {
    "rulesExecuted": 44,
    "rulesSkipped": 0,
    "plansCreated": 1,
    "peakMemoryUsage": 32768,
    "executionTime": 0.00241307167840004
  }
}

Also see:

Indexes

Parallel index creation (Enterprise Edition)

In the Enterprise Edition, non-unique indexes can be created with multiple threads in parallel. The number of parallel index creation threads is currently set to 2, but future versions of ArangoDB may increase this value. Parallel index creation is only triggered for collections with at least 120,000 documents.

Storing additional values in indexes

Persistent indexes now allow you to store additional attributes in the index that can be used to cover more queries without having to look up full documents. They cannot be used for index lookups or for sorting, but for projections only.

You can specify the additional attributes in the new storedValues option when creating a new persistent index:

db.<collection>.ensureIndex({
  type: "persistent",
  fields: ["value1"],
  storedValues: ["value2"]
});

See Persistent Indexes.

Enabling caching for index values

Persistent indexes now support in-memory caching of index entries, which can be used when doing point lookups on the index. You can enable the cache with the new cacheEnabled option when creating a persistent index:

db.<collection>.ensureIndex({
  type: "persistent",
  fields: ["value"],
  cacheEnabled: true
});

This can have a great positive effect on index scan performance if the number of scanned index entries is large.

As the cache is hash-based and unsorted, it cannot be used for full or partial range scans, for sorting, or for lookups that do not include all index attributes.

See Persistent Indexes.

Document keys

Some key generators can generate keys in an ascending order, meaning that document keys with “higher” values also represent newer documents. This is true for the traditional, autoincrement and padded key generators.

Previously, the generated keys were only guaranteed to be truly ascending in single server deployments. The reason was that document keys could be generated not only by the DB-Server, but also by Coordinators (of which there are normally multiple instances). While each component would still generate an ascending sequence of keys, the overall sequence (mixing the results from different components) was not guaranteed to be ascending. ArangoDB 3.10 changes this behavior so that collections with only a single shard can provide truly ascending keys. This includes collections in OneShard databases as well. Also, autoincrement key generation is now supported in cluster mode for single-sharded collections. Document keys are still not guaranteed to be truly ascending for collections with more than a single shard.

Read from followers in Clusters (Enterprise Edition)

You can now allow for reads from followers for a number of read-only operations in cluster deployments. In this case, Coordinators are allowed to read not only from leader shards but also from follower shards. This has a positive effect, because the reads can scale out to all DB-Servers that have copies of the data. Therefore, the read throughput is higher.

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Edition.

For more information, see Read from followers in the HTTP API documentation.

The JavaScript API supports an allowDirtyReads option for AQL queries and reading documents.

Improved shard rebalancing

Starting with version 3.10, the shard rebalancing feature introduces an automatic shard rebalancing API.

You can do any of the following by using the API:

  • Get an analysis of the current cluster imbalance.
  • Compute a plan of move shard operations to rebalance the cluster and thus improve balance.
  • Execute the given set of move shard operations.
  • Compute a set of move shard operations to improve balance and execute them immediately.

For more information, see the Cluster section of the HTTP API documentation.

Query result spillover to decrease memory usage

Queries can be executed with storing intermediate and final results temporarily on disk to decrease memory usage when a specified threshold is reached, either based on the memory usage (in bytes) or the number of result rows.

This feature is experimental and is turned off by default. It is currently limited to AQL queries that use SORT operations but without a LIMIT. The query results are still built up entirely in memory on Coordinators and single servers unless you use streaming queries.

An example of how to configure the spillover feature:

arangod --database.directory "myDir"
--temp.intermediate-results-path "tempDir" 
--temp.intermediate-results-encryption
--temp.intermediate-results-encryption-hardware-acceleration
--temp.intermediate-results-spillover-threshold-memory-usage 134217728
--temp.intermediate-results-spillover-threshold-num-rows 50000

You can also set the thresholds per query in the JavaScript and HTTP APIs.

For details, see:

Server options

Responses early during instance startup

The HTTP interface of arangod instances can now optionally be started earlier during the startup process, so that ping probes from monitoring tools can already be responded to when the instance has not fully started.

You can set the new --server.early-connections startup option to true to let the instance respond to the /_api/version, /_admin/version, and /_admin/status REST APIs early.

See Respond to liveliness probes.

Cache RocksDB index and filter blocks by default

The default value of the --rocksdb.cache-index-and-filter-blocks startup option was changed from false to true. This makes RocksDB track all loaded index and filter blocks in the block cache, so they are accounted against the RocksDB’s block cache memory limit. The default value for the --rocksdb.enforce-block-cache-size-limit startup option was also changed from false to true to make the RocksDB block cache not temporarily exceed the configured memory limit.

These default value changes will make RocksDB adhere much better to the configured memory limit (configurable via --rocksdb.block-cache-size). The changes may have a small negative impact on performance because, if the block cache is not large enough to hold the data plus the index and filter blocks, additional disk I/O may need to be performed compared to the previous versions. This is a trade-off between memory usage predictability and performance, and ArangoDB 3.10 will default to more stable and predictable memory usage. If there is still unused RAM capacity available, it may be sensible to increase the total size of the RocksDB block cache, by increasing --rocksdb.block-cache-size. Due to the changed configuration, the block cache size limit will not be exceeded anymore.

It is possible to opt out of these changes and get back the memory and performance characteristics of previous versions by setting the --rocksdb.cache-index-and-filter-blocks and --rocksdb.enforce-block-cache-size-limit startup options to false on startup.

RocksDB range delete operations in cluster

The new --rocksdb.use-range-delete-in-wal startup option controls whether the collection truncate operation in a cluster can use RangeDelete operations in RocksDB. Using RangeDeletes is fast and reduces the algorithmic complexity of the truncate operation to O(1), compared to O(n) when this option is turned off (with n being the number of documents in the collection/shard).

Previous versions of ArangoDB used RangeDeletes only on a single server, but never in a cluster.

The default value for this startup option is true, and the option should only be changed in case of emergency. This option is only honored in the cluster. Single server and Active Failover deployments use RangeDeletes regardless of the value of this option.

Note that it is not guaranteed that all truncate operations use a RangeDelete operation. For collections containing a low number of documents, the O(n) truncate method may still be used.

Pregel configuration options

There are now several startup options to configure the parallelism of Pregel jobs:

  • --pregel.min-parallelism: minimum parallelism usable in Pregel jobs.
  • --pregel.max-parallelism: maximum parallelism usable in Pregel jobs.
  • --pregel.parallelism: default parallelism to use in Pregel jobs.

Administrators can use these options to set concurrency defaults and bounds for Pregel jobs on an instance level.

There are also new startup options to configure the usage of memory-mapped files for Pregel temporary data:

  • --pregel.memory-mapped-files: to specify whether to use memory-mapped files or RAM for storing temporary Pregel data.

  • --pregel.memory-mapped-files-location-type: to set a location for memory-mapped files written by Pregel. This option is only meaningful, if memory-mapped files are used.

For more information on the new options, please refer to ArangoDB Server Pregel Options.

Query spillover options

The following new options are available to control the Query spillover feature.

  • --temp.intermediate-results-path
  • --temp.intermediate-results-encryption (Enterprise Edition only)
  • --temp.intermediate-results-encryption-hardware-acceleration (Enterprise Edition only)
  • --temp.intermediate-results-spillover-threshold-memory-usage
  • --temp.intermediate-results-spillover-threshold-num-rows

AQL query logging

Introduced in: v3.9.5, v3.10.2

There are three new startup options to configure how AQL queries are logged:

  • --query.log-failed for logging all failed AQL queries, to be used during development or to catch unexpected failed queries in production (off by default)
  • --query.log-memory-usage-threshold to define a peak memory threshold from which on a warning is logged for AQL queries that exceed it (default: 4 GB)
  • --query.max-artifact-log-length for controlling the length of logged query strings and bind parameter values. Both are truncated to 4096 bytes by default.

ArangoSearch column cache limit

Introduced in: v3.9.5, v3.10.2

The new --arangosearch.columns-cache-limit startup option lets you control how much memory (in bytes) the ArangoSearch column cache is allowed to use.

Introduced in: v3.10.6

You can reduce the memory usage of the column cache in cluster deployments by only using the cache for leader shards with the new --arangosearch.columns-cache-only-leader startup option. It is disabled by default, which means followers also maintain a column cache.

Cluster supervision options

Introduced in: v3.9.6, v3.10.2

The following new options allow you to delay supervision actions for a configurable amount of time. This is desirable in case DB-Servers are restarted or fail and come back quickly because it gives the cluster a chance to get in sync and fully resilient without deploying additional shard replicas and thus without causing any data imbalance:

  • --agency.supervision-delay-add-follower: The delay in supervision, before an AddFollower job is executed (in seconds).

  • --agency.supervision-delay-failed-follower: The delay in supervision, before a FailedFollower job is executed (in seconds).

Introduced in: v3.9.7, v3.10.2

A --agency.supervision-failed-leader-adds-follower startup option has been added with a default of true (behavior as before). If you set this option to false, a FailedLeader job does not automatically configure a new shard follower, thereby preventing unnecessary network traffic, CPU load, and I/O load for the case that the server comes back quickly. If the server has permanently failed, an AddFollower job is created anyway eventually, as governed by the --agency.supervision-delay-add-follower option.

Edge cache refill options

Introduced in: v3.9.6, v3.10.2

  • --rocksdb.auto-refill-index-caches-on-modify: Whether to automatically (re-)fill in-memory edge cache entries on insert/update/replace operations by default. Default: false.
  • --rocksdb.auto-refill-index-caches-queue-capacity: How many changes can be queued at most for automatically refilling the edge cache. Default: 131072.
  • --rocksdb.auto-fill-index-caches-on-startup: Whether to automatically fill the in-memory edge cache with entries on server startup. Default: false.
  • --rocksdb.max-concurrent-index-fill-tasks: The maximum number of index fill tasks that can run concurrently on server startup. Default: the number of cores divided by 8, but at least 1.

Introduced in: v3.9.10, v3.10.5

  • --rocksdb.auto-refill-index-caches-on-followers: Control whether automatic refilling of in-memory caches should happen on followers or only leaders. The default value is true, i.e. refilling happens on followers, too.

RocksDB Bloom filter option

Introduced in: v3.10.3

A new --rocksdb.bloom-filter-bits-per-key startup option has been added to configure the number of bits to use per key in a Bloom filter.

The default value is 10, which is downwards-compatible to the previously hard-coded value.

Option to disable Foxx

Introduced in: v3.10.5

A --foxx.enable startup option has been added to let you configure whether access to user-defined Foxx services is possible for the instance. It defaults to true.

If you set the option to false, access to Foxx services is forbidden and is responded with an HTTP 403 Forbidden error. Access to the management APIs for Foxx services are also disabled as if you set --foxx.api false manually.

Access to ArangoDB’s built-in web interface, which is also a Foxx service, is still possible even with the option set to false.

Disabling the access to Foxx can be useful to close off a potential attack vector in case Foxx is not used. Also see Server security options.

RocksDB auto-flushing

Introduced in: v3.9.10, v3.10.5

A new feature for automatically flushing RocksDB Write-Ahead Log (WAL) files and in-memory column family data has been added.

An auto-flush occurs if the number of live WAL files exceeds a certain threshold. This ensures that WAL files are moved to the archive when there are a lot of live WAL files present, for example, after a restart. In this case, RocksDB does not count any previously existing WAL files when calculating the size of WAL files and comparing its max_total_wal_size. Auto-flushing fixes this problem, but may prevent WAL files from being moved to the archive quickly.

You can configure the feature via the following new startup options:

  • --rocksdb.auto-flush-min-live-wal-files: The minimum number of live WAL files that triggers an auto-flush. Defaults to 10.
  • --rocksdb.auto-flush-check-interval: The interval (in seconds) in which auto-flushes are executed. Defaults to 3600. Note that an auto-flush is only executed if the number of live WAL files exceeds the configured threshold and the last auto-flush is longer ago than the configured auto-flush check interval. This avoids too frequent auto-flushes.

Configurable whitespace in metrics

Introduced in: v3.10.6

The output format of the metrics API slightly changed in v3.10.0. It no longer had a space between the label and the value for metrics with labels. Example:

arangodb_agency_cache_callback_number{role="SINGLE"}0

The new --server.ensure-whitespace-metrics-format startup option lets you control whether the metric label and value shall be separated by a space for improved compatibility with some tools. This option is enabled by default. From v3.10.6 onward, the default output format looks like this:

arangodb_agency_cache_callback_number{role="SINGLE"} 0

Configurable interval when counting open file descriptors

Introduced in: v3.10.7

The --server.count-descriptors-interval startup option can be used to specify the update interval in milliseconds when counting the number of open file descriptors.

The default value is 60000, i.e. the update interval is once per minute. To disable the counting of open file descriptors, you can set the value to 0. If counting is turned off, the arangodb_file_descriptors_current metric reports a value of 0.

Configurable limit of collections per query

Introduced in: v3.10.7

The --query.max-collections-per-query startup option allows you to adjust the previously fixed limit for the maximum number of collections/shards per AQL query. The default value is 2048, which is equal to the fixed limit of collections/shards in older versions.

Custom arguments to rclone

Introduced in: v3.9.11, v3.10.7

The --rclone.argument startup option can be used to prepend custom arguments to rclone. For example, you can enable debug logging to a separate file on startup as follows:

arangod --rclone.argument "--log-level=DEBUG" --rclone.argument "--log-file=rclone.log"

Limit the number of databases in a deployment

Introduced in: v3.10.10

The --database.max-databases startup option allows you to limit the number of databases that can exist in parallel in a deployment. You can use this option to limit the resources used by database objects. If the option is used and there are already as many databases as configured by this option, any attempt to create an additional database fails with error 32 (ERROR_RESOURCE_LIMIT). Additional databases can then only be created if other databases are dropped first. The default value for this option is unlimited, so an arbitrary amount of databases can be created.

Configurable maximum for queued log entries

Introduced in: v3.10.12

The new --log.max-queued-entries startup option lets you configure how many log entries are queued in a background thread.

Log entries are pushed on a queue for asynchronous writing unless you enable the --log.force-direct startup option. If you use a slow log output (e.g. syslog), the queue might grow and eventually overflow.

You can configure the upper bound of the queue with this option. If the queue is full, log entries are written synchronously until the queue has space again.

Miscellaneous changes

Optimizer rules endpoint

Added the GET /_api/query/rules REST API endpoint that returns the available optimizer rules for AQL queries.

Additional metrics for caching subsystem

The caching subsystem now provides the following 3 additional metrics:

  • rocksdb_cache_active_tables: total number of active hash tables used for caching index values. There should be 1 table per shard per index for which the in-memory cache is enabled. The number also includes temporary tables that are built when migrating existing tables to larger equivalents.
  • rocksdb_cache_unused_memory: total amount of memory used for inactive hash tables used for caching index values. Some inactive tables can be kept around after use, so they can be recycled quickly. The overall amount of inactive tables is limited, so not much memory will be used here.
  • rocksdb_cache_unused_tables: total number of inactive hash tables used for caching index values. Some inactive tables are kept around after use, so they can be recycled quickly. The overall amount of inactive tables is limited, so not much memory will be used here.

Observability of in-memory cache subsystem

Introduced in: v3.10.11

The following metrics have been added to improve the observability of in-memory cache subsystem:

  • rocksdb_cache_free_memory_tasks_total: Total number of free memory tasks that were scheduled by the in-memory edge cache subsystem. This metric will be increased whenever the cache subsystem schedules a task to free up memory in one of the managed in-memory caches. It is expected to see this metric rising when the cache subsystem hits its global memory budget.
  • rocksdb_cache_free_memory_tasks_duration_total: Total amount of time spent inside the free memory tasks of the in-memory cache subsystem. Free memory tasks are scheduled by the cache subsystem to free up memory in existing cache hash tables.
  • rocksdb_cache_migrate_tasks_total: Total number of migrate tasks that were scheduled by the in-memory edge cache subsystem. This metric will be increased whenever the cache subsystem schedules a task to migrate an existing cache hash table to a bigger or smaller size.
  • rocksdb_cache_migrate_tasks_duration_total: Total amount of time spent inside the migrate tasks of the in-memory cache subsystem. Migrate tasks are scheduled by the cache subsystem to migrate existing cache hash tables to a bigger or smaller table.

Replication improvements

For synchronous replication of document operations in the cluster, the follower can now return smaller responses to the leader. This change reduces the network traffic between the leader and its followers, and can lead to slightly faster turnover in replication.

Calculation of file hashes (Enterprise Edition)

The calculation of SHA256 file hashes for the .sst files created by RocksDB and that are required for hot backups has been moved from a separate background thread into the actual RocksDB operations that write out the .sst files.

The SHA256 hashes are now calculated incrementally while .sst files are being written, so that no post-processing of .sst files is necessary anymore. The previous background thread named Sha256Thread, which was responsible for calculating the SHA256 hashes and sometimes for high CPU utilization after larger write operations, has now been fully removed.

Traffic accounting metrics

Introduced in: v3.8.9, v3.9.6, v3.10.2

The following metrics for traffic accounting have been added:

LabelDescription
arangodb_client_user_connection_statistics_bytes_receivedBytes received for requests, only user traffic.
arangodb_client_user_connection_statistics_bytes_sentBytes sent for responses, only user traffic.
arangodb_http1_connections_totalTotal number of HTTP/1.1 connections accepted.

Configurable CACHE_OBLIVIOUS option for jemalloc

Introduced in: v3.9.7, v3.10.3

The jemalloc memory allocator supports an option to toggle cache-oblivious large allocation alignment. It is enabled by default up to v3.10.3, but disabled from v3.10.4 onwards. Disabling it helps to save 4096 bytes of memory for every allocation which is at least 16384 bytes large. This is particularly beneficial for the RocksDB buffer cache.

You can now configure the option by setting a CACHE_OBLIVIOUS environment variable to the string true or false before starting ArangoDB.

See ArangoDB Server environment variables for details.

WAL file tracking metrics

Introduced in: v3.9.10, v3.10.5

The following metrics for write-ahead log (WAL) file tracking have been added:

LabelDescription
rocksdb_live_wal_filesNumber of live RocksDB WAL files.
rocksdb_wal_released_tick_flushLower bound sequence number from which WAL files need to be kept because of external flushing needs.
rocksdb_wal_released_tick_replicationLower bound sequence number from which WAL files need to be kept because of replication.
arangodb_flush_subscriptionsNumber of currently active flush subscriptions.

Number of replication clients metric

Introduced in: v3.10.5

The following metric for the number of replication clients for a server has been added:

LabelDescription
arangodb_replication_clientsNumber of currently connected/active replication clients.

Reduced memory usage of in-memory edge indexes

Introduced in: v3.10.5

The memory usage of in-memory edge index caches is reduced if most of the edges in an index refer to a single or mostly the same collection.

Previously, the full edge IDs, consisting of the the referred-to collection name and the referred-to key of the edge, were stored in full, i.e. the full values of the edges’ _from and _to attributes. Now, the first edge inserted into an edge index’ in-memory cache determines the collection name for which all corresponding edges can be stored prefix-compressed.

For example, when inserting an edge pointing to the-collection/abc into the empty cache, the collection name the-collection is noted for that cache as a prefix. The edge is stored in-memory as only /abc. Further edges that are inserted into the cache and that point to the same collection are also stored prefix-compressed.

The prefix compression is transparent and does not require configuration or setup. Compression is done separately for each cache, i.e. a separate prefix can be used for each individual edge index, and separately for the _from and _to parts. Lookups from the in-memory edge cache do not return compressed values but the full-length edge IDs. The compressed values are also used in-memory only and are not persisted on disk.

Sending delay metrics for internal requests

Introduced in: v3.9.11, v3.10.6

The following metrics for diagnosing delays in cluster-internal network requests have been added:

LabelDescription
arangodb_network_dequeue_durationInternal request duration for the dequeue in seconds.
arangodb_network_response_durationInternal request duration from fully sent till response received in seconds.
arangodb_network_send_durationInternal request send duration in seconds.
arangodb_network_unfinished_sends_totalNumber of internal requests for which sending has not finished.

Peak memory metric for in-memory caches

Introduced in: v3.10.7

This new metric stores the peak value of the rocksdb_cache_allocated metric:

LabelDescription
rocksdb_cache_peak_allocatedGlobal peak memory allocation of ArangoDB in-memory caches.

Number of SST files metric

Introduced in: v3.10.7

This new metric reports the number of RocksDB .sst files:

LabelDescription
rocksdb_total_sst_filesTotal number of RocksDB sst files, aggregated over all levels.

File descriptor limit metric

Introduced in: v3.10.7

The following system metrics have been added:

LabelDescription
arangodb_file_descriptors_limitSystem limit for the number of open files for the arangod process.
arangodb_file_descriptors_currentNumber of file descriptors currently opened by the arangod process.

More instant Hot Backups

Introduced in: v3.10.10, v3.11.3

Cluster deployments no longer wait for all in-progress transactions to get committed when a user requests a Hot Backup. The waiting could cause deadlocks and thus Hot Backups to fail, in particular in ArangoGraph. Now, Hot Backups are created immediately and commits have to wait until the backup process is done.

Client tools

arangobench

arangobench has a new --create-collection startup option that can be set to false to skip setting up a new collection for the to-be-run workload. That way, some workloads can be run on already existing collections.

arangoexport

arangoexport has a new --custom-query-bindvars startup option that lets you set bind variables that you can now use in the --custom-query option (renamed from --query):

arangoexport \
  --custom-query 'FOR book IN @@@@collectionName FILTER book.sold > @@sold RETURN book' \
  --custom-query-bindvars '{"@@collectionName": "books", "sold": 100}' \
  ...

Note that you need to escape at signs in command-lines by doubling them (see Environment variables as parameters).

arangoexport now also has a --custom-query-file startup option that you can use instead of --custom-query, to read a query from a file. This allows you to store complex queries and no escaping is necessary in the file:

// example.aql
FOR book IN @@collectionName
  FILTER book.sold > @sold
  RETURN book
arangoexport \
  --custom-query-file example.aql \
  --custom-query-bindvars '{"@@collectionName": "books", "sold": 100}' \
  ...

arangoimport

arangoimport has a new --overwrite-collection-prefix option that is useful when importing edge collections. This option should be used together with --to-collection-prefix or --from-collection-prefix. If there are vertex collection prefixes in the file you want to import, you can overwrite them with prefixes specified on the command line. If the option is set to false, only _from and _to values without a prefix are going to be prefixed by the entered values.

arangoimport now supports the --remove-attribute option when using JSON as input file format. For more information, refer to the arangoimport Options.

ArangoDB Starter

ArangoDB Starter has a new feature that allows you to configure the binary by reading from a configuration file. The default configuration file of the Starter is arangodb-starter.conf and can be changed using the --configuration option.

See the Starter configuration file section for more information about the configuration file format, passing through command line options, and examples.

Internal changes

C++20

ArangoDB is now compiled using the -std=c++20 compile option on Linux and MacOS. A compiler with c++-20 support is thus needed to compile ArangoDB from source.

Upgraded bundled library versions

The bundled version of the RocksDB library has been upgraded from 6.8.0 to 7.2.

The bundled version of the Boost library has been upgraded from 1.71.0 to 1.78.0.

The bundled version of the immer library has been upgraded from 0.6.2 to 0.7.0.

The bundled version of the jemalloc library has been upgraded from 5.2.1-dev to 5.3.0.

The bundled version of the zlib library has been upgraded from 1.2.11 to 1.2.12.

For ArangoDB 3.10, the bundled version of rclone is 1.59.0. Check if your rclone configuration files require changes.

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